Commercial Geography is the relation between Geographic Structure and Commercial Activities. The Commerce is depends on the structure of the Geography and related factors such as Land Structure, Population, Climate, Temperature, Stability and many other Things.

Definition of Commercial Geography

“Commercial geography is a form of geography concerned with the production and supply of raw materials including agricultural output and finished goods.”

Commercial Geography includes two words

1.    Commerce and

2.    Geography

Commercial Geography is mainly concern with the term ‘Geography of transport systems’.

Transportation is the fundamental factor related to the mobility. Mobility is necessary for economic and social activities as well as for communication, manufacturing, or supply of energy from one place to another.

Important attributes of commercial Geography

Origin, intermediate locations, destination, and nature.

Base of Commercial Activities

Need for Commercial activities,




Business and


Factors promoting market, business and trade, Location, Culture and Transportation are also another important factors related with it.

RESOURCES of the Commercial Activities

Types of Commercial resources

Primary Commercial activates: These are Primary Commercial activities which uses Primary Resources.

Secondary Commercial activities: These commercial activities done by using the Secondary Resources.


Agricultural products and their distribution inland (major cities only) and utilization (abroad)

Major areas of Production are also important in case of Commercial resources from Agricultural area

Commercial Agriculture: The Commercial Agriculture consists of live stock, Piscary (Fishery) trade & Home Culture.

The agro Technology, agro Commercial activities, storage, Communication, The Pattern of Distribution also act as important part here.


Commercial resources such as minerals and powers are required for commercial activities.

Important minerals and power resources

Their Production, distribution and uses for commercial activities

Energy and powers such as Oil, Gas, Electricity and Solar energy, Nuclear Energy


Industrial products acts as an important resource for commercial trade and its geography.

Types of industries are the major part of it:

Cottage Industry

Small scale Industry and

Large scale

Major industries, their distribution and major problems of industrial development


Time, distance and cost are the main factors which affects on the Transportation and Communication of Goods and Services and on other commercial activities.

Means or modes of transportation and means of communication are also important factor affecting on commercial activities


Financial Institutions such as National and International banks, Insurance companies, Government agencies are the important institutions involved in Commerce and trade.

These can be classified as-

i.    National financial institutions

National Banks

National Insurance companies

Government Agencies

Other National Financial Institutions

ii.    International Financial Institutions

IBRD (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) –Now it called World Bank

IMF (International Monetary Fund)

IFC (International Financial Corporations)

Other Commercial Activities-

Imports Exports Activities

BOP (Balance of payments) and BOT (Balance of trade)

Foreign Exchange and related Activities

Major commercial cities and ports of the world and particular regions are crucial for these commercial Geography. Four major Commercial cities of the World and their commercial activities are given as below:


New York,