Herzberg’s two factor theory of motivation is the another well known theory for motivation. Frederickk Herzberg’s a Psychologist developed this theory which is also mentioned as Dual Factor Theory, Hygiene Theory Etc… This theory is developed during 1950’s. The theory was designed on the basis of a research conducted by him

    Herzberg conducted a survey among 200 engineers and accountant and he asked mainly two questions to them

    1) when did you feel particularly good about your job.

    2) When did you feel exceptionally bad about your job.

    The result of this survey revealed that the factor which make them to feel good was not made them to feel bad.

    —Some of the factors which make them to feel good were:-

    Achievement, Recognition, Responsibility, advancement Etc… these are the factors which gives Job satisfaction to the employee. So these factors can be considered as Motivators. and these factors create satisfaction if they are present and will not create dissatisfaction if not present.

    —Some of the factors which make them to feel bad were:-

    Organizational Policy, supervision, salary, security, working condition Etc…

    These factors are called as hygiene factors that is the presence of which will not act as a motivator but the absence of which will lead to dissatisfaction.

    To summarize the theory it can be represented as:-

    Traditional theory

    Satisfaction dissatisfaction

    Herzberg Theory

    Hygiene Factor

    No Dissatisfaction dissatisfaction

    Motivators

    Satisfaction No satisfaction

    To summarize the theory it can be represented as:-

    Traditional theory

    Satisfaction dissatisfaction

    —————————————————————————

    Herzberg Theory

    Hygiene Factor

    No Dissatisfaction dissatisfaction

    —————————————————————————

    Motivators

    Satisfaction No satisfaction

    —————————————————————————

    Factors of theory

    Hygiene: Job Dissatisfaction

    Company policy

    Administration

    Interpersonal Relations

    Working Conditions

    Salary

    Security

    Motivators: Job satisfaction

    Achievement

    Recognition

    Work itself

    Responsibility

    Advancement

    Growth

    Compare Maslow and Herzberg

    When we critically compare Maslow and Herzberg motivation theory:

    The higher order needs specified by Maslow is considered as Motivators as per Herzberg. And lower order needs are Hygiene factors.

    As per Maslow any need can be a motivator if it is satisfied. But Herzberg says that only higher order needs can be a motivator.

    Maslow theory has been sequentially arranged as per the requirement of the need where as Herzberg theory has no such sequence. But both the theories did not speak or relate individual need with that of organizational goal. They fail to link how the individual need can be helpful to achieve organizational goal.