The main part of Prof. Geert Hofstede’s study or Model of Cultural Dimensions is “how values in the workplace are influenced by culture.” From 1967 to 1973 Prof. Hofsted collected and analyzed data base of employees value scores. Actually this data was collected by IBM from more than 70 countries. The total number of countries was divided into 3 parts to make the analysis easy. In first part they considered largest 40 countries to analyze data. Then he extended the analysis to remaining 40 countries and 3 regions.

Based on IBM study replications and extensions, international population and cultural factors includes 74 countries for Prof. Geert Hofstede’s ranking scores from 2001.

The four primary Dimensions of Hofstede’s Model to assist in differentiating cultures are:

Power Distance – PDI,

Individualism – IDV,

Masculinity – MAS, and

Uncertainty Avoidance – UAI

Additional fifth Dimension developed after study with Chinese employees and managers and applied for 23 countries-

Based on Confucian dynamism (Long-Term Orientation – LTO)

The dimensions are related to the other country, cultural, and religious paradigms.

About Hofstede (Small Biography)

Name: Gerard Hendrik Hofstede

Dutch organizational sociologist

Studied: the interactions between national cultures and organizational cultures

Date of Birth: 3 October 1928

Place of Birth: Haarlem

Work: Author of several books including Culture’s Consequences and Cultures and Organizations, Software of the Mind, co-authored with his son Gert Jan Hofstede

Hofstede’s Model Says:“There are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behaviour of societies and organizations, and that these are persistent across time.”

Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Culturesix dimensions of culture in his study of national work related values.The dimensions are:

Small vs. large power distance

Individualism vs. collectivism

Masculinity vs. femininity

Weak vs. strong uncertainty avoidance

Long vs. short term orientation

Indulgence vs. restraint