The term Strategy is derived from Greek work Strategos in the 18th Century. Strategy has a background of Military for it’s Origin or evolution. The concept of strategy evolved slowly from Military Strategy to Business Strategy or strategic management. Military origin of Strategy can be explained with help of the following points and examples.
Definition: Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals (Source: Wikipedia)
Military theory of strategy defines: strategy is the utilization during both peace and war, of all of the nation’s forces, through large scale, long-range planning and development, to ensure security and victory” (Random House Dictionary).
Meaning in short: The art of general, or the art of arrangement of troops
The concept of Military strategy deals with:
1. The planning and conduct of campaigns
2. the movement and disposition of forces, and
3. the deception of the enemy.
Definition of Strategy (by Carl von Clausewitz, The father of Western modern strategic study)
“the employment of battles to gain the end of war.”
Definition of Strategy (by B. H. Liddell Hart)
“the art of distributing and applying military means to fulfill the ends of policy”.
Sun Tzu:the father of Eastern military strategy
The Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese historical and modern war tactics are influence by him
The principles of military strategy emerged in the works of Sun Tzu and Chanakya.
Following are the some examples of Military Strategy (Planning & Development) demonstration & implementation:
Alexander the Great, Chandragupta Maurya, Hannibal, Qin Shi Huang, Julius Cæsar, Zhuge Liang, Khalid ibn al-Walid
Niccolò Machiavelli’s Dell’arte della guerra (Art of War)
1618-1648 (The Thirty Years’ War)
Advanced operational strategy by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
Victories on the soil of the Holy Roman Empire.
In the Seven Years’ War, Frederick the Great improvised a “strategy of exhaustion” to hold off his opponents and conserve his Prussian forces.
The word was first used in German as “Strategie” in a translation of Leo’s work
shortly thereafter in French as “stratégie” by Leo’s French translator,
The word Stratggie in English (Strategy)
Three ways: Art &/or Science of conduct of warfare, Tacticts and Logistics were the main bases for strategy in Military
It was difficult to distinguish Tactics from strategy in Roman Times and there was confusion about these concepts.
Involvement of Troops observed in French Revolutionary War.
The distinction between maneuver and battle, strategy and tactics, expanded with the capacity of technology and transit.