The types of groups can be classified in different ways on various basis like Size, formation, relationship, purpose, process, membership stc. It can also be said that a single group can be segregated in more than one type. For eg… A family can be classified as primary group and also as IN groups .
Types of Groups
Some major types of groups are discussed here
Primary & secondary
Primary groups are the groups were in members have regular face to face interactions. Members in the group have close interpersonal relationship. Family is the best example for Primary group. In case of organization Quality circle is the best example.
Secondary Groups are such groups were members come together to earn money and transact goods and services.
the emotions love anger disappointment can be shared in primary group whereas in secondary group it is restrained
Membership & Reference
Membership groups are the group which requires a formal registration and members need to obtain card or certificate. AIMA All India Management Association is an example of membership group.
Reference groups are such groups by which the individual wants to identify himself as a member or to which group he wants to belong. Family is an example of Reference group.
To be simple membership groups are which the individual actually belongs and reference groups are which the individual wants to belong
IN and OUT group
In group is the group in which individuals hold powerful values and it plays a vital role in social functioning eg.. Family, service organization etc…
OUT groups are the groups which does not share any social value.
In other dimension In group is in which the individual is a member and out group is in which he is not a member. And the members of in group have enmity wit the out group
Interest and friendship Group
Interest groups are formed by individuals who have common interest in achieving a particular task eg. Group coordinating any social gathering.
Friendship group is formed by members having one or more common features. Generally people speaking same language, belonging to same place will become a part of friendship group.
Open & closed Group
Open group is such group were in the membership is keep on changing that is any new member can join and existing member can leave the group. As the members are keep on changing the group will get new ideas and the same time perspective is limited to near future.
Closed group are group were the membership is closed it can said as constant.
Temporary & Permanent Group
Temporary groups are formed for a particular purpose. When the task for which the group is formed is completed the group will be separated.
Permanent group are group which is not task based. Which will keep on go
Nominal & Non-Performing Group
Nominal group are groups which have problems to be solved tasks are undertaken by members. Have a structured way of performing. Suggestions of members will be taken in a written format.
Non-Performing group are group which is only on paper are for show purpose. Which will not have any specific function to perform
Formal & Informal Group
Formal Groups are such groups which are formed generally by the organization. There exist an structure and hierarchy among the members. This formal groups are formed basically from the organizational chart itself.
Command group and task group are examples of Formal groups
informal groups are formed by the people voluntarily based on their interest. When people with similar interest with in the organization come together and form a group is called informal group.
Their wont be any structure for such groups. Generally people form this group for their social need with in the organisation.